There are many defects that can be uncovered during the home inspection of the electrical systems.
Branch Circuits this area can have many defects and tend to be one of the longer sections in the home inspection report because of so many defects observed in this area. I test receptacles top and bottom if accessible, Ground Fault Circuits, Arc Fault Circuits if present, removing dead front covering and checking for incorrect installation of wiring, loose or damaged breakers, lose wiring, correct breaker size and wiring,type of branch circuit wiring and much more. Some defects that can be exposed during the electrical inspection are Loose wire connections which can lead to aching and cause fires, loose breakers, Over sized breakers which will not trip if there is a problem than they become a fire hazard as well. Missing Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters(GFCI) These are safety devices that are required in wet areas such as garages, kitchens, outside areas, all bathrooms, laundry rooms, and dishwashers. Many times these may be missing in older homes.The GFCI'S may not function in these required areas. Missing Arc Fault Circuit Interrupters. These protect your if a wire was arcing. So if a wire was to arc inside the home this would trip the breaker protecting you and your family from a potential fire. When were arc faults required well they were not required until 2002 in Texas so if your home was built before than your home probable does not have them. They are know required in the following areas family rooms, recreation areas, formal living rooms, sun rooms, studies, office areas, all bedrooms etc. Breakers that are double tapped this also are fire hazards and need to be corrected, wires missing conduit that could be physically damaged wires must be enclosed in conduit under ground and in areas at exterior and in garage areas that are under 8 feet from grade. Neutral wires sharing spots on the bus bar they should have there own spot at bus bar. Many times there are exposed wires these should be enclosed in junction boxes, junction boxes missing covers, Spliced wires not located in junction boxes and missing wire nuts, People using extension cords as permanent wiring